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Weekly quiz

A weekly quiz question.

Question: If the ligand is a protein of 37000 Da with two binding sites for a small compound of 2400 Da, how much ligand should there be immobilized to obtain a theoretical Rmax of 100 RU?

A: ± 3000 RU
B: ± 1550 RU
C: ± 770 RU
D: ± 70 RU

    • SPR is not an Art

      SPR is not an Art!

      Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) seems to be difficult for many people. Judging on the literature many of you are struggling to get nice sensorgrams with easy to fit curves. However, SPR is straightforward when you know what you are doing. Consequently, you have to learn how SPR works, how to perform an experiment and how to analyze it. So what are the key parts of a proper SPR experiment?
    • NicoyaLogo

      Blog of Ryan Denomme

      Ryan Denomme of Nicoya Lifesciences publishes a nice blog about SPR and related topics. For instance about preserving precious sample by optimizing preconcentration and immobilization or what the difference is between SPR and LSPR.
      Definitely worthwhile to check this blog!

    • LowFigure

      How Low Can You Go ?

      In SPR experiments, low responses are preferred over high responses. This is because high responses in general are affected by mass transport and non 1:1 interactions. But how low can you go?
      This depends in the first place on the instrument you have chosen. The signal should be above the noise level of the baseline. The curves should be easily recognisable and replicates should overlay.
    • 25Years

      25 Years Of SPR

      Although the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was known for a long time (see Wood; 1902), in 1990 Pharmacia Biosensor AB brought the first commercial SPR instrument to the market. For a long time, these so-called Biacore instruments set the standard in research using SPR. Nowadays we say that we do a Biacore experiment when we mean that we do a SPR experiment. Since then, the instruments have been evolved and several new manufacturers are selling SPR instruments with new features (SPR imaging: IBIS; Interaction Array: Bio-Rad; multi-parametric SPR: BioNavis ), new sensor chip types (alginate surface: Bio-Rad; hydrophilic SAM: Xantec; graphene surface: Sensia) and software wizards to guide the user.

      The instruments are all in best shape and performing excellent. However, how is the user doing? Has he also developed with the instruments or is he struggling to keep up?
    • Sensorgram

      Getting a feeling for the curves

      With the modern SPR instruments it is quite simple to generate a “binding curve”, but what does it mean? Does it tell something about the specific biomolecular interaction or are we looking at artefacts?
      The first result from a SPR experiment is the sensorgram. Each sensorgram contains a world of information for the trained eye. Therefore, it is essential to recognize good from bad curves. A bad curve represents a bad experiment, producing bad results from which conclusions cannot be drawn. And be aware, there is a lot of rubbish in the SPR literature! For example, read the articles from David Myszka and Rebecca Rich.
      A good understanding of the binding curves is the first step in interpreting the data.
SPR summer school 2017
This summer school will take place from May 29th - June 2nd 2017 at the University of Tampere, Finland.

Master SPR for life sciences – from affinity and kinetic constants to conformation changes, hands-on training on a pre-selected set of molecules, SPR experiment planning, assay development, understanding of the underlying physico-chemical phenomena to resolve challenges, new applications of SPR from science and industry. You will become an independent expert in SPR.
SPRpages book
The book contains more additional information and figures compared to the SPR-Pages. In addition, the book can serve as a reference next to your SPR machine. By buying this book you directly support the SPRpages.


Kitchener, ON, January 20, 2016: Nicoya Lifesciences, a leader in label-free molecular analysis, announced today its newest product, OpenSPR-XT - a fully automated molecular analysis instrument based on the highly successful OpenSPR instrument.

The OpenSPR line of surface plasmon resonance instruments uses proprietary nanotechnology based sensors to provide high quality molecular interaction data at a fraction of the cost of traditional SPR instruments.

More information can be found at Nicoya Lifesciences - OpenSPR-XT

Single surface referencing

Springer et al introduces single surface referencing. A single functionalized surface is split into the detection and reference channel to which complex sample (detection) and complex sample mixed with biomolecules binding to the analyte and thus inhibiting the binding of the analyte to the functionalized surface (reference) is introduced. Goto reference

Single surface referencing

Gravity driven SPR

Zhou et al. developed a gravity driven SPR sensor. This power-free flow injection system is easy to use and the internal reference compensates for flow fluctuations. The miniature and power-free flow injection system would open the possibility to build a miniature system for point of care testing.

Goto referenence

Gravity SPR

Standardized antibodies

Do you use the best reagents? Do you know how your antibodies work?
Ever bought antibodies that did not perform as expected?
Read the comment in Nature and improve your experiments by using validated protein-binding reagents.

Goto article

Nature image

SPR Biosensor based on smart phone platforms

Check this article if you are interested in simple and cheap SPR solutions. The authors show a SPR instrument that makes use of a smart phone to deliver and detect the signal.

Goto article

SPR Phone
ScrubberThis well designed program helps you to clean and analyse your sensorgrams in minutes. Reference subtraction, double referencing, DMSO compensation, almost with one mouse click. Version 2c of Scrubber extends the program with kinetic models for simple binding (association and dissociation rates) and a model for mass transport limited binding.
The SPR-Simulation program is a standalone application to simulate kinetic interaction curves. The program draws the curves after the input of the kinetic rate constants, the analyte concentration and the association and dissociation times.
Other features are the simulation of equilibrium sensorgrams, mass transport, decaying surfaces and plotting an overlay over an imported sensorgram figure.
The KD assistant is a small program to assist with the optimization of kinetics runs. The program can calculate the maximal analyte concentration to be used from one manual analyte injection. The input consists of the initial binding rate (slope), the response of the analyte injection and the analyte concentration. The program deals also with the capturing level of the ligand and adjusts the analyte concentration accordingly. Goto Software
The SPR-forum is dedicated to the combination between SPR and biomolecular interactions. There are many questions asked and answered so browse through the topics.
Feel free to post your questions about the technology, instruments or experimental set-up.
The BiaMethodWriter is a program to write the automation methods in a more interactive way. This program uses pop up menus and dialog boxes to define the values of the parameters. Remembering these odd parameters is not necessary any more.
It works for the control software with the Biacore 2000/3000. Is not compatabile with the new T200 control software.
Your Help
Your help is appreciated!. Give your feedback about this website, tips for better experiments or report interesting links. Maybe you have nice tips for every body or you can contribute in a more substantial way to the SPR-pages. Check out the forum for questions and answers.
Web links
Look at the many books, suppliers, machines, software and other links!? Did you look at the FAQ and download pages? You will find a lot of interesting stuff there.
Donate figure
The SPRpages are not affiliated to any company or institute. For the maintenance of the SPRpages we rely on the donations and the sales of the SPRpage book and the SPR-simulation program. Therefore, any donation is appreciated.
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clean immobilization stabilization association steady state dissociation regeneration analysis